all right the 1870s we get a sudden change in the silhouette Wow that is different growing urbanization the end of the civil war and the sense of modernity saw the silhouette change to one that was more practical the emphasis pushed to the back with this it's called a soft bustle a soft bustle hey this is modern this isn't so restrictive is it the way that clothing was structured in the 1870s emphasized the the backside like this so you'd have your soft bustle underneath but then look at this it's like a peplum at the back it's a bustle and all the emphases as you can see is at the back but it's soft and you can sit down in it and it's normal kinda but just you wait in the 1880s we get the hard bustle it might be the only time in history that if you ask the question does my butt look big in this and the answer was yes you'd be happy look at this and this and this and this is a hard bustle it was Kentucky note so when you sat down it folded in on itself but you can see it is made with metal it was not light and it was very strange I rather like this settle head I have no idea why but I like the 1818 I think this is kind of pretty the bus or the hard bustle and there were varieties of hard bustle and here is a picture of a lady looking very cute in a hard bustle do you like this there have been many theories regarding the popularity of the bustle ranging from African imperialism to sexuality and from abolition to industrial design and for your nineteenth-century assignment you are to do some independent research and investigate and write a two-page paper on the various theories that explain the bus'll defending or refuting them alternatively you may make a case for your own theory as to why the bus'll was so popular in the 1870s and 80s and if you're going to go this route remember always that fashion is not an island it's a response and so I want to see some good evidence as to why you come up with your own theory we are still bustling along yeah are some recent fashion images inspired by the bustle I really kind of like this a jacket on the right I think that's Betsey Johnson which has a lovely soft bustle effect at the back head where during this era the bonnet was replaced with small hats that were either higher at the front and or childred forward to help balance out this silhouette like this I think that's so pretty don't you and here is a photograph of a lady from the 1880s wearing one of these small pretty decorative hats by the middle of the 19th century fashion starts working the way that we know it to today with fashion magazines like Harper's Bazaar this is the cover of I think the very first Harper's Bazaar and this idea of oak watcher meet Charles Frederick worth he really was the first fashion designer in the way that we understand it today he was operating for a very long time from the 1860s all the way through to the beginning of the 20th century and here are some of Charles Frederick worth beautiful gowns so why was he different – I don't know Rose batao remember Mary Antoinette Trinette dressmaker well Charles Frederick work had collections he did fashion the way that her designers today jus he was the first designer to use real-life human models mannequins he was the first designer to do collections so he would do a collection modeled by real-life people fashion models and then just as Oh Peter works today people would view his collection and choose the dresses that they want that would be tailored to their size he was also I think the the very first person to have their designs knocked off just the way designers today however their designs knocked off so he really was the first fashion designer in the the way that we understand fashion design today he started the system if you will so he's an extremely important person for you should know about just a little note the Belle époque the period from 1870 to 1914 the start of World War two is known as La Belle Epoque in Paris the beautiful age as it was an era marked by art Impressionism etc entertainment the Moulin Rouge but cam-cam and when the working class could finally partake of some of the fun cafes bars picnics usually reserved for the middle and upper classes the Belle Epoque I just want you to be very aware of this term and this age and what it means back to America but getting towards the end of the century now and here are some of the men who built America this is a still from a PBS or History Channel documentary series that came out recently on the men who built America it was in this the the last part the last quarter of the 19th century that America started to lay the groundwork so the scenes are becoming the world superpower that it would become in the following century people like Rockefeller Vanderbilt Carnegie industrialists bankers this was the start of America as we know it and by the 1880s and new technology was increasingly available and by the 1890s it would change the world and the lives of the people in it forever including and maybe especially ours electricity electricity changed everything of course I had always been electricity it was in this era that we harnessed electricity and electricity was celebrated this new technology at an event that really marked the beginning of the truly modern world as we know it the World's Fair in Chicago in 1892 that was nicknamed the white city because of its extensive use of this amazing new technology electric light it also had the world's first ferris wheel there is a great book which is about to be turned into a movie I believe starring Leonardo DiCaprio it's a project anyway called the devil in the White City murder magic and math this at the fair that changed America it's a fantastic book it's a nonfiction but it's written in a very exciting way it's about the architect of the World's Fair and America's first serial killer who used the World's Fair as a means of finding victims for his house of horror it's a great book electricity lit up the world it meant nightlife it meant that people could have a safe and fun existence after duck yes there had always been street lights and gas lamps in the 19th century but electricity man this would change everything the 1890s are known as the gay 90's and we start seeing a whole range of exciting new novelties and an embrace of fun really Nickelodeon's take a look at this these you could put look at a penny into a slot turner handle and you would see animated animated and moving pictures but we would soon get moving pictures on film as well bicycles bicycles cycling was a craze of the gay 90's women were active more active than they had ever been before and there was an exciting new drink that everybody was crazy about Coca Cola I just mentioned that women were more active I love this picture women of the 1890s the gay 90's going out for a swim a swim oh my goodness we saw the first electric streetcars this that people could get around town everybody could get around town you didn't need to own a horse and carriage this new electric world impacted fashion quite directly take a look at this harness electric corset the 1890s was all about novelty well gimmicks were everywhere and yes women did wear courses corset but are generally not electric ones that sounds like an electric shock just waiting to happen doesn't it yet the extreme corset tree that we think about really happened at the turn of the 20th century and the 1910s so we will look at extreme corset or even fashion in the 1890s responded to this exciting new world with a totally new silhouette brace yourselves this one Wow this increasingly active and novelty filled world meant that women needed to be more mobile so bustles disappeared in lieu of a more practical a line skirt like this one here but look at that big puffy ridiculous leap it is called a leg of mutton sleeve the same idea as the Gigot sleeves you go Danielle but it's not in French leg of mutton this really implies that this is turning into an American world and to remind you that this is a leg of mutton so we understand why skirts became more practical but why this massive leg-of-mutton sleeve here it is on a sweater well from the 1830s onwards fashion equaled volume didn't it the more fashionable you were the more volume you had somewhere in the 1830s it was in those huge ego sleeves and that massive wide shoulder in the a teen 50s and 60s volume with the big hoop skirts the Caged crinolines and the elliptical crinoline in the 1870s and 80s volume with the big bustle so I think that in the 1890s women had to feel they had volume somewhere in order to feel fashionable and because they were so active compared to how they they had been a volume was a sort of a no good on the lower half of the body but on the upper half it could work but also is this sleeve shape reminiscent reminiscent of something else we just discussed something that obsessed the 1890s and changed everybody's lives an electric light bulb the leather mutton sleeve is light bulb shaped isn't it fashion is never an island it's always a response always practical fashion for women meant the first real suits for women like this one of course with of the leg-of-mutton sleeve it was everywhere it was ubiquitous you had to have a leg of mutton sleeve look at this suit and this one I think she might be the cutest girl we've looked at yet in this course I love this outfit and she looks so stylish these these are blouses that are shown here are known as shirt waists and they were extremely popular in the 1890s but they would peak in the 1900s and 1910s Oh we'll look at the phenomenon of the shirt waist then but just check out these suits I think they're great because of this active world we see the first active wear I mentioned earlier that cycling was the hot novelty everybody was cycling the bicycle was the big thing the bicycle in the 1890s were sort of the iPhone of today everybody had to have a bike and look at the way she is dressed she is wearing what is now known as bloomers in honor of Emily bloomer of a few decades earlier and then the word bloomers would be used for your pantalettes and here is a great cycling outfit a museum piece lovely double-breasted leg-of-mutton sleeve jacket and these wonderful sort of culottes really billowy culottes that you could cycle in and swim wear proper swim that wear yes the Victorians of earlier decades they were to wade into the water but basically they were wearing dresses to do it look at this this is swimwear and here are some museum pieces of swimwear from the 1890s cute don't you think let's talk about hats in the 1890s take a look they were small they had a novelty appearance to them didn't they it was all about novelty it was really about fun do you like them I think they're ridiculous but kind of cute but the big hat that we really associate with this era are these straw hats here and they are called boaters everybody had a boater I love this picture because not only does every girl have a boater but every girl has a leg of mutton sleeve and it really shows you that there was a time when people followed fashions rules you'll see this all the way through the rest of this course I think you've seen it all the way through this course and it's only very recently that we've stopped following fashions rules or have we basically we all do dress alike still don't we and everyone could read about all of these exciting new styles in a new magazine that debuted in 1892 vogue the gay 90's live on at least on the runway here are some recent fashion images that speak to the 1890s and that ludicrous but ludicrously fun leg-of-mutton sleeve let's just take a second to look at men in the 1890s and you can see we have a very sober look here but we also see the frock coat and something called the ditto suit see the guy in the stripes in detail suit is when the jacket and the pants are made out of the same fabric like here this is a completely contemporary suit isn't it you could wear this today there was a trend in the 1890s and going into the first part of the 20th century Jew your jacket at the very top and then leave it loose like this guy is doing here and you see he has his waistcoat it has his pocket watch he has his tie really this is this is a child the seconds of court rules isn't it pants jacket should tie vest that's all a man needs but of course it was a time of novelty the 1890s and there was a novelty item for men that they loved striped Blazers like this the 19th century it was the best of times it was the worst of times I think you can understand why I chose that quote to start this lecture but I think it ended on something of a high note well love it or hate it the 19th century changed the world it started in a carriage and ended in a car oh my god what change the world changed so quickly in the 19th century and as you saw fashion responded so imagine what will happen in the next 100 years to take fashion from this to this I'll see you next time when we blast off into the 20th century I'm so excited and I'll see you then and don't forget your assignment on the bustle bye

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